## Glossary

**A priori:** Knowledge that is with us at the very beginning, based on previous observations or experience. Our initial assumptions are *a priori* beliefs.

**Godzillion:** A number so big you can’t understand it.

**Monte Carlo:** An experiment performed by generating lots of randomly sampled numbers. Monte Carlo methods can be extremely powerful and are able to simulate processes so convoluted that finding a mathematical equations to describe them would bring a room full of ErdÅ‘s +2 mathematicians to tears.

**R:** a free, open-source programming language. R has many built in functions and libraries for data analysis, including all of the traditional statistical functions (eg linear regression) and many of the newer data mining tools (eg Lasso). The main page for R is here.

**Stega-godzillion:** a godzillion raised to the godzillionth power. See also: *godzillion*.

**Universal probability bound:** The nutty, slightly fruity notion that events which are highly improbable (beyond some universal probability bound, 1 in 10^150 according to Dembski) can’t (or won’t) just happen *by themselves*. If you observe an event of this nature, it must have been fated, or designed, or created. The theory is silly because we cross the UPB all the time. Toss a coin a thousand times: The exact sequence you observe will be way over (under?) the UPB. Yet it happened, because some sequence had to happen, no divine intervention necessary.